Goa is a state in India that consists of an outlying island and a district on the country's southwest coast. It is roughly 400 kilometres (250 miles) south of Mumbai (Bombay).
It is one of the smallest states in India, bordered on the north by Maharashtra, on the east and south by Karnataka, and on the west by the Arabian Sea.
The district's capital, Panaji (Panjim), is on the mainland's north-central coast. It was formerly a Portuguese colony but was annexed by India in 1962 and granted statehood in 1987. 1,429 square miles in size (3,702 square km).
Though the present-day state of Goa was only created in 1987, Goa's history extends back to prehistoric times. Despite having the smallest territory of any state in India, Goa has a lengthy and varied history. There are many parallels between it and Indian history, particularly in colonial impacts and diverse culture.
Usgalimal rock engravings show some of India's earliest indications of human habitation. It dates to the upper palaeolithic or Mesolithic periods.
The Kadamba kingdom, Vijayanagara Empire, Bahmani Sultanate, and Bijapur Sultanate during the Middle Ages governed Goa.
From the second-century CE to 1312, the Kadamba dynasty ruled it, and from 1312 to 1367, it was ruled by Deccani Muslims. Following the city's annexation by the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, the Bahmani sultanate invaded and established Old Goa on the island in 1440.
Invading Goa in 1510, the Portuguese overthrew the Bijapur Sultanate. The roughly 450-year Portuguese occupation profoundly impacted Goan culture, food, and construction.
India invaded Goa in 1961 and seized the territory after a 36-hour fight. Goa, Daman, and Diu combined the Goa region. It also comprised the Damon territory in the Konkan region's north. Among Indian states, Goa has one of the best GDPs per capita and Human Development Indexes.
Rice, fruits (like mangoes), coconuts, lentils (legumes), cashews, betel (areca nut), and sugarcane are some of Goa's most important agricultural products. Among the main forest products are teak and bamboo. Although sustainability has become an increasingly important issue in the 21st century, the state boasts a thriving fishing industry along its coast. It exported some of the state's agricultural products.
Goa's diverse native population and Portuguese colonial history have shaped the region's distinctive cultural landscape. Christians and Hindus made up most of the population; Roman Catholic churches and crossroads signs can be seen all along the western coast and in the estuaries, while Hindu temples and shrines can be found throughout the hilly east.
Goa is home to sizable Muslim communities as well as lesser Jains, Sikhs, and indigenous communities. Many Goans have Portuguese personal names and surnames.
Because Portuguese used to be the language of the government and the aristocracy. Nowadays, meanwhile, the majority of Goans opt to speak English, Konkani, or Marathi.
Goa has excellent road, rail, sea, and air connections to the rest of India and the rest of the world. A sizable bus terminal in Panaji is located next to the Konkan railway station. The Konkan railway, finished in 1998, travels along India's western coast from west-central Maharashtra to southern Karnataka, where it connects with the southern railway of the nation.
Another train line runs from Marmagao, the state's main port, via Madgaon to Castle Rock, in Karnataka's Western Ghats, which links to the nation's southwest rail network. Near Panaji in Dabolim lies an international airport.