The fertile state of Assam has a border with the Blue Mountains and the Brahmaputra River. Agriculture is the primary activity of the locals, and the overall civilization is rural in origin. Essentially, Bihu is a celebration of the onset of a new season. The three Bihu festivities correspond to a significant time in Assam's agricultural calendar.
The Assamese folks shine out in the background of the country because of the celebration of Bihu, which gives them a distinctive identity. In addition to being an important part of Assam's tradition, Bihu is a harvest celebration. It is for three times during significant agricultural calendar specific moments.
The most significant event for the Assamese people is the three-times-a-year Bihu festival. Every one of those Bihus symbolises a distinct and distinctive stage of the Assamese harvest season and a feature exclusive to that specific event.
The fertile state of Assam has a border with the Blue Mountains and the Brahmaputra River
The seven-day Bohag Bihu or Rongali Bihu event is also known as Haat Bihu
The most significant event for the Assamese people is the three-times-a-year Bihu festival
The seven-day Bohag Bihu or Rongali Bihu event is also known as Haat Bihu. Rati Bihu, Goru Bihu, Manuah Bihu, Gosain Bihu, Kutum Bihu, Senehi Bihu, and Mela Bihu are the names of the seven days.
Raati Bihu festivities begin on the first night of Chaitra and continue till the start of Uruku. The native women assemble in an open field where torches are lit for gatherings. During the celebration, men from the villages make music created from a buffalo hornpipe.
The people bring livestock from the villages to the main water supply in Goru Bihu and properly bathe and cleanse using a paste of turmeric and black gramme. Then, people give various kinds of vegetables to the cattle as food, and they chant to thank them for contributing to the farmers' successful harvest.
Folks wash their houses and take a customary turmeric bath in honour of Manuah Bihu. They meet their relatives, dress traditionally, and ask the elders for their wishes. During this celebration, people share gifts, and virtually every family gives the elderly a Bihuwan or Gamusa cloth as a sign of respect.
The dhoti, Chelang, Riha, and Mekhela are different gifts. On Nahar leaves, several households inscribe Sanskrit chants, which they then conceal behind the roof. The people perform this ceremony to request Lord Shiva's shelter from all natural features, and have a symbolic meaning.
During the festival of Gosain Bihu, people idolise the gods and perform traditional songs.
During the festival of Kutum Bihu, people typically take a trip to their relatives' homes to have a meal and tell stories to strengthen their bonds.
The day known as Senehi Bihu is set aside just for lovers. The day represents romantic love and conception. On this day, young people visit their loved ones and present them with presents known as "Bihuwan."
The Kongali Bihu often referred to as the Kati Bihu, comes forward and usually takes place in the middle of October. The paddy fields are in the growth phase at this time of year, and the farmer's farmlands are virtually empty. This day's festive mood is calm and set; there is considerably less joy, and a spirit of seriousness and limitation is in the air.
There is minimal fun and a mood of restraint and seriousness in the air, giving Kongali Bihu a weird preference. The paddy in the fields is in the growth phase at this time of year, and the farmer's gardens are nearly bare. At the base of the residence tulsi plant, the granary, the garden (bari), and the paddy lands on this day, earthen lamps (saki) are ignited.
Ancient people used earthen lamps to draw flies to the paddy fields, which served as an organic insecticide. Agriculturists spin a bamboo stick and perform rowa-khowa chants and charms to ward off insects and the evil spirit of preserving the ripening paddy.In the evening, you can feed the cattle, especially with prepared rice products called pitha. The Bodo calls Kati Bihu ``Kati Gasa," while the Dimasa calls her "Gathi Sainjora." At the base of the siju tree, the Bodo folk place lamps.Kati Bihu is also linked to the illumination of akaxi gonga or akaxbonti, lamps at the end of a tall bamboo pole, to illuminate the path to paradise for the spirits of the deceased, a custom that is widespread throughout India, Asia, and Europe. October is traditionally the month for Kati Bihu.
The harvesting process ends in January because people celebrate Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu in the middle of the month to mark its conclusion. Its prominence is the same as that of holidays like Pongal or Makar Sakranti.
Magh Bihu is significant, particularly for those who are part of the agricultural society area. People erected the Meiji and hay-based temporary hut-like constructions the night before the event. The many groups gather around these hut-like constructions, known as Bhelaghars, to feast, exchange presents and warm wishes, perform Bihu songs, and play dhols. To celebrate the conclusion of the harvest cycle, villagers burn these huts in the morning after having a bath and worshipping the God of fire. Then, for best effects, the burned firewood is taken back and placed among the fruit trees.
The term Bhogali Bihu, also known as Magh Bihu, derives from Bhog, which means to chew and relish. The harvest season concludes with this festival. There is a lot of partying and dining during this time because the granaries are full. Men, and especially young men, go to a farm, usually near a river, on the eve of the day known as uruka.
The last day of pausa, to construct a temporary structure known as Bhelaghar with the hay from the harvesting areas and the bonfire or Meji, which is the most crucial element for the night. They make meals throughout the night, and communal dining occurs everywhere. At this time, compliments and the exchanging of sweets also take place.
People gather around a Meji to play games, perform Bihu songs, and beat traditional drums throughout the full night (known as Uruka). Boys prowl the streets at night for pleasure, stealing firewood and produce. The major Meji is burned the following morning after they take a bath.
Folks assemble around the Meji and fire it while throwing Pithas (rice cakes) and betel nuts. They conclude the harvesting year by making their devotion to the God of fire. They then return home with bits of partially burned firewood put among fruit trees to produce fruit. Every tree in the compound is fastened to paddy stalks of bamboo strips. The day is full of sports, such as the Buffalo fight, Egg-fight, Cock-fight, Nightingale-fight, etc. Several multicultural groups also celebrate other traditional holidays.
Rongali Bihu, also called Bohag Bihu, which corresponds to the New Year recognized in various states in March or April based on the Hindi calendar, kicks off the festivities.
The most well-known Bohag Bihu marks the beginning of the Assamese New Year and the arrival of spring. On the first day of the Hindu solar calendar and is also celebrated in Bengal, Manipur, Mithila, Nepal, Orissa, Punjab, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. It typically lasts seven days and is a time of joy and festivity. The farmers are happy as they arrange the land for the growth of paddy.
The most well-known of all the Bihus, Rongali Bihu, typically occurs in the middle of April. It marks the start of the New Year and the latest season of harvesting. Rongali Bihu includes eating the traditional cuisine known as Pitha Larus (prepared with Coconut and Rice), Jolpan, trying to clean up, donning garments, and praying to cows and god idols in hopes of receiving good wishes and success in the upcoming year.
The first day of the Bihu is goru Bihu or cow Bihu, which typically falls on April 14. On this day, cows are neat, and you can adore them. On April 15, you can perform the New Year's Day manuh (human) Bihu. On the day to have a new dress, tidy up, celebrate, and get ready for the special year with new energy. The third day is Gosai (Gods) Bihu, when all home god statues are clean, and you can worship them in hopes of a peaceful new year.
Bihugeets or Bihu songs are the names for the folk melodies related to the Bohag Bihu. Various population groupings have distinctive festivities and ritual forms.